We have more than 20 laboratory courses (beamline practicals) on the application sciences, etc. using SPring-8 facilities. Please Choose four subjects. BL practicals will be held on Oct. 16 and 17. Please note that you may not be able to attend your preferred BL practicals since the maximum number of participants for each BL practical is limited. In addition, your preferred BL practicals may have been changed due to cancellation caused by the BL mechanical problems.
Theme: in-situ XAFS Measurement of Catalyst Samples
Tomoya Uruga (JASRI/SPring-8)
The bending magnet beamline, BL01B1, is used for various applications of XAFS over a wide energy range from 3.8 to 113 keV. In the practical training course, we plan to show how to measure XAFS spectra, which covers alignment of X-ray optics and sample position. We will also demonstrate in-situ time-resolved quick scanning XAFS measurement of catalyst samples under reaction condition.
Theme: Single Crystal Diffractometry for Precise Crystal Structure
Kunihisa Sugimoto and Nobuhiro Yasuda (JASRI/SPring-8)
The beamline for single crystal, BL02B1, is designed for the precise crystal structure analysis to elucidate the structure properties relationship with electron orbital resolution. There are large cylindrical image plate camera and 7-axes diffractmeter to adapt various experimental conditions. For the statistically reliable and high resolution data, high-energy X-ray and very small size crystal are used in order to reduce the absorption and extinction effect. In this beamline practical course, we will plan the experiment using large cylindrical image plate camera how to collect the high reliable data and how to determine an absolute structure from single crystal diffraction.
Theme: Practical Training for Powder Diffraction Experiment at BL02B2
Kim Jungeun (JASRI/SPring-8)
The high-energy and high-brilliance synchrotron X-ray at SPring-8 allows materials scientists to unravel structure-property relationship with electron distribution resolution using powder diffractometry. In the present training, we are planning to offer practical technique on how to select proper X-ray wavelength and capillary size, how to align beamline components, how to prepare powder sample and how to measure data for synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction experiment. If time permits, the fully automatic measurement system using a sample changer and image recognition will be shown.
Theme: In situ Observation of High-Pressure Phase of the Simple Material (KCl)
Ken’ichi Funakoshi (JASRI/SPring-8)
The BL04B1 beamline is designed for conducting researches on the structure and the physical properties under high pressure. In the practice, we observe the high pressure phase change of KCl using the large-volume press. KCl is a well-known simple material which is reversibly-transformed from B1 to B2 phase with pressure. The phase boundary of KCl are determined from in situ X-ray diffraction analysis.
Theme: Disordered Structure Probed by High-energy X-ray Diffraction Technique
Shinji Kohara (JASRI/SPring-8)
High-brilliance and high-energy X-rays are one of the biggest advantages of SPring-8. The use of high-energy X-rays allows us to measure diffraction patterns up to high-reciprocal space in a transmission geometry with small scattering angles and small correction terms, which provides more detailed and reliable structural information of disordered materials (glass, liquid, and amorphous materials) than has hitherto been available. In this course, we will focus on the structural analysis of disordered materials by the diffraction measurement. We will learn how we can obtain a reliable diffraction data for disordered materials and how we can analyze the data. Furthermore we will try to perform structural modeling of disordered materials on the basis of diffraction data employing computer simulation technique.
Theme: Beam Diagnostics of the SPring-8 Storage Ring using Undulator Radiation
Mitsuhiro Masaki and Siro Takano (JASRI/SPring-8)
The spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics of the undulator radiation reflect the transversal and longitudinal properties of electron beam stored in the storage ring. In this laboratory course, we will provide an opportunity to measure the energy spectrum and the spatial profile of the undulator radiation and to see the effects of the emittance and the energy spread of the electron beam. Furthermore, this course will include observations of the temporal structure of the electron beam using an X-ray streak camera.
Theme: High Pressure X-ray Diffraction Measurement in a Diamond Anvil Cell
Naohisa Hirao and Yasuo Ohishi (JASRI/SPring-8)
The undulator beamline BL10XU is dedicated for X-ray diffraction experiments at high pressure and low/high temperature using diamond anvil cells (DACs). The high-resolution monochromatic angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction patterns obtained at BL10XU allow us to accurate structural analysis in crystals submitted to extreme pressures. To have a better understanding of high-pressure research using a combination of synchrotron radiation and a DAC technique through this BL practice course, in situ high-pressure X-ray diffraction experiments will be carried out.
Theme: Hard X-ray Spectroscopy at Transition Metal K-edge.
Ku-Ding Tsuei and Hirofumi Ishii (Taiwan Beamline Office / SPring-8)
The tunable and brilliant third generation synchrotron radiation source allowed us to carry out various spectroscopy experiments in hard x-ray region. The undulator beamline BL12XU is primarily designed for resonant and non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS and IXS) experiments. Participants at our course will learn knowledge and techniques of Rowland circle type spectrometer which is commonly used in hard x-ray spectroscopy. Practically, we will demonstrate RIXS type experiment, the high resolution x-ray absorption, using this spectrometer at transition metal K-edge.
Theme: Introduction of a Special Optics and Application to Structural Determination of Interfaces.
Osami Sakata (JASRI/SPring-8)
Beamline BL13XU is dedicated for surface/interface structural studies using diffraction and scattering techniques such as crystal-truncation-rod scattering, reflectivity, and standing waves. We do not only offer users measurement tools but also improve diffraction techniques and methods for structural determination of interfaces. The aim of this training course is to introduce such technical improvements that we are initiating. For example, the users often request us to make an incident beam smaller and smaller since their samples become smaller. Such request will be fulfilled by utilizing a focusing optics or by limiting the beam. Of course, they would not like to smear the angular resolution or lose the intensity either.
1) Plan of the first day:
To arrange a optics to overcome such difficulties and evaluate a beam size and an angular divergence.
2) Plan of the second day:
To apply the optics to dynamical diffraction measurements and standing wave ones.
Theme: Making Experimental Control Software
Yukito Furukawa (JASRI/SPring-8)
The aim of the course is to understand experimental station and beamline control system and to acquire skill for writing simple experiment control programs using some scripting language. The programs contain scanning a monochromator, counting photons and displaying the results. To examine the program, students will measure X-ray absorption spectra of some metal foils.
Theme: Three-Dimensional X-ray Topography
Kentaro Kajiwara (JASRI/SPring-8)
X-ray topography is a nondestructive characterization technique for imaging by means of X-ray diffraction. Micrometer-to-centimeter-sized defects microstructure in single crystals are revealed by X-ray topography. The target of this technique is the evaluation and characterizing of crystals for technological applications and for crystal growth and processing. Most of x-ray topographic techniques show two-dimensional projection images. But x-ray topographic techniques for three-dimensional observation have been also developed. In the practical training course, we will plan the brief explanation of x-ray topography, and the three-dimensional observation of the glide plan, the shape and the distribution of dislocations by step-scanning section topography.
Theme: Pump and Probe Technique for Picosecond Time-resolved X-ray Diffraction
Yoshihito Tanaka and Kiminori Ito (RIKEN/SPring-8)
The pulsed nature of synchrotron radiation (SR) and the synchronization technique between SR pulse and femtosecond pulsed laser enable pump and probe measurements with 40 ps time resolution. Application of the technique to x-ray diffraction makes us to investigate fast structural dynamics in sub-nanosecond time scale. Furthermore, an x-ray free electron laser generating intense femtosecond pulsed x-rays, will achieve the femtosecond time-resolution in the observation of ultrafast atomic motions. The course will introduce the students to the timing control and monitoring techniques of the SR and laser pulses, and demonstration of the picosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction measurement for lattice dynamics of a single semiconductor crystal.
Theme: Micro-Tomography Experiment
Kentaro Uesugi (JASRI/SPring-8)
Micro-tomography experiments are carried out at many synchrotron radiation facilities in the world. The basic technique of the tomography is using absorption contrast of specimen. In the practice, examples of absorption based micro-tomography will be explained. Some test specimen will be measured and reconstructed for the demonstration.
Theme: Imaging Microscopy with Fresnel Zone Plate Objective
Yoshio Suzuki (JASRI/SPring-8)
The Fresnel zone plate is not only a beam-focusing tool but also a image-forming devise. Most of x-ray and soft x-ray imaging microscopes are, so far, made using the Fresnel zone plate as an objective lens. That is because astigmatism, spherical aberration, coma, and field distortion of Fresnel zone plate optics are negligibly small for nm-resolution imaging. We will present a lecture on zone plate optics as an image-forming system and typical demonstration for hard x-ray imaging microscopy.
Theme: Soft X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Measurement and the Related Techniques
Tetsuya Nakamura and Takuo Ohkochi (JASRI/SPring-8)
BL25SU provides circularly polarized soft x-ray of photon-energy between 220 eV and 2000 eV. Periodical helicity switching (0.1 - 10Hz) using the twin helical undulators and high energy resolution of E/DE > 10,000 are the leading features of the beamline. The helicity switching technique gives great advantage to magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurement. Participants of the experiments at BL25SU during the Cheiron school will take part in soft x-ray MCD measurements. A conventional XMCD measurement is planned in the first practice day, which is good for XMCD beginners. In the second day, a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) will be used to learn how to obtain element specific magnetic domain structures. The second day practice could be better for the participants who know what XMCD is. Following an introduction of the optical components and measurement apparatuses installed at the beamline, they will learn how we measure precise MCD spectra or PEEM images. We believe that the planned course will provide a fruitful opportunity for participants interested in soft x-ray techniques and the study of magnetic materials.
Theme: Soft X-ray Photoabsorption Spectroscopy using Fluorescence Yield Method
Yusuke Tamenori (JASRI/SPring-8)
The beamline BL27SU is used for NEXAFS applications in the soft X-ray energy region (0.17-2.8 keV). In the practical training course, the participants will experience how to measure soft X-ray NEXAFS spectrum. The participants will gain experience in sample preparation, sample alignment inside a vacuum chamber, and data acquisition. NEXAFS spectra will be measured by means of the total fluorescence yield method using an MCP detector and the partial fluorescence yield method using a solid state detector.
Theme: A Method of Hard X-ray Focusing with Ultraprecise Mirrors
Yoshiki Kohmura (RIKEN/SPring-8), Hidekazu Mimura (Osaka Univ.)
In this course, we will demonstrate hard X-ray focusing with a K-B mirror optical system. X-ray focusing systems are installed for a high spatial resolution analysis in various X-ray microscopic methods. In hard X-ray region, there are several focusing instruments such as zone plates, refractive lenses and K-B mirrors. K-B mirrors are proposed in 1948 by Kirkpatrick and Baez. Two elliptically curved mirrors are used for two-dimensional hard X-ray focusing. This focusing system has characteristics of no achromatic aberration and high efficiency.
In the last decade, X-ray mirror fabrication technology is further improved. The degree of an accuracy of advanced X-ray focusing mirrors is higher than 2 nm (p-v). At the 1 km-long beam line (BL29XUL) of SPring-8, X-ray focusing tests have been carried out. The ideal focusing, so-called diffraction limited focusing, was realized. The focused beam size is achieved to be 7 nm by using multilayer mirrors. The 400 mm-long focusing mirror with an ideal performance was also successfully fabricated. Considering these progresses, focusing systems using ultraprecise X-ray mirrors will be widely installed in many beamlines.
However, for two-dimensional X-ray focusing, two focusing mirrors should be aligned precisely. Due to the high degree of freedom in mirror positions, it is difficult for many users to align the mirrors without a certain level of knowledge and skill. From these reasons, there are still high barrier in installing K-B mirror system. The purpose of this course is to understand a method of hard X-ray focusing with K-B mirror. In this course, first we will present the history in the development of X-ray mirrors at SPring-8. Then, we will show the detail procedure of an alignment of two mirrors. We also explain which axis or angles of the mirror are sensitive to the focusing state. Finally, we actually demonstrate the two-dimensional hard X-ray focusing. We have a plan to use a 400 mm-long mirror for vertical forcing and a 200 mm-long mirror for horizontal focusing. X-ray energy will be 15keV.
Theme: Data Collection and S-SAD Phasing of Lysozyme and Insulin Crystals
Seiki Baba (JASRI/SPring-8)
Phase problem is a major difficulty in protein crystallography. As a recent advancement, S-SAD phasing method has been proposed. It solves the problem by the anomalous effect of sulfur atoms involved in most protein samples. In this exercise, we plan to the data collection of insulin crystal and the determination of its structure. The alignment of the beamline and a sample mounting robot will also be introduced.
Theme: Small-angle Scattering Experiments
Naoto Yagi (JASRI/SPring-8)
Small-angle scattering/diffraction experiments require sophisticated optics (monochromator, focusing mirror, slits) and a detector system. Examples at small-angle beamlines (BL40B2 and BL40XU) will be explained. As a typical application, a protein solution scattering experiment will be conducted at BL40B2 with some instructions on the data analysis. Instrumentation for time-resolved experiments is also explained.
Theme: Microspectroscopy using Infrared Synchrotron Radiation
Taro Moriwaki (JASRI/SPring-8)
BL43IR provides infrared radiation of high brilliance from a large bending radius (39.3 m) bending magnet. The beamline is therefore suitable for the microspectroscopy applications at the diffraction limit scale of approximately 10-100 micrometer depending on the wavelength. We plan to provide an opportunity to use the infrared microscope at the beamline of the practical training on adjustment of the optics, sample preparation (human hair cross-sectioning), adjustment of the microscope and measurements (two-dimensional mapping of the hair sample).
Theme: Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
JinYoung Son, Tomoyuki Koganezawa, Masatake Machida and Hiroshi Oji (JASRI/SPring-8)
BL46XU is an undulator beamline dedicated for industrial research. Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a powerful tool to observe the distributions of chemical states from surface to bulk (several tenth of nm). A hemispherical type electron energy analyzer is used at BL46XU. The aim of this course is to learn a principle of HAXPES and gain experience of measuring photoelectron spectra of various materials with 8 keV monochromated X-ray.